axios和网络传输相关知识的学习实践

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转自:http://blog.csdn.net/sinat_17775997/article/details/54915257

在学习了之前的路由vue-router和状态管理vuex之后,就应该是网络交互了。就学习尤大推荐的axios了。刚好本人对网络请求这块除了会get、put、post和delete这四个方法之外知之甚少,刚好补全上。

注意:Vue官方推荐的网络通信库不再是vue-resource了,推荐使用axios


尤大的公告

axios安装

npm:

$ npm install axios

bower:

$ bower install axios

Using cdn:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/axios/dist/axios.min.js"></script>

基本使用方法

GET请求

// Make a request for a user with a given ID
axios.get('/user?ID=12345')
  .then(function (response) {
    console.log(response);
  })
  .catch(function (error) {
    console.log(error);
  });

// Optionally the request above could also be done as axios.get('/user', { params: { ID: 12345 } }) .then(function (response) { console.log(response); }) .catch(function (error) { console.log(error); });

POST请求

 axios.post('/user', {
firstName: 'Fred',
lastName: 'Flintstone'
})
.then(function (response) {
console.log(response);
})
.catch(function (error) {
console.log(error);
});

同时执行多个请求

function getUserAccount() {
return axios.get('/user/12345');
}

function getUserPermissions() { return axios.get('/user/12345/permissions'); }

axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()]) .then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) { // Both requests are now complete }));

其实和其他的ajax库一样,基本用法都是差不多的。大家一看就知道怎么用。

axios API

可以直接通过config来完成请求
axios(config)

axios({
method: 'post',
url: '/user/12345',
data: {
firstName: 'Fred',
lastName: 'Flintstone'
}
});

axios(url, [config])

// Send a GET request (default method)
axios('/user/12345');

请求方法别名

下面是axios支持的所有请求方法别名,便于各种请求。
注:[...]中的数据表示可以为空。url是ajax请求地址;data是提交的数据对象;config是配置对象,所有ajax配置都可以在config中实现。

并发性

下列接口用于处理并发请求(同时处理多个多个request)

axios实例

可以用自定义的config创建一个axios实例
axios.create([config])

var instance = axios.create({
baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',
timeout: 1000,
headers: {'X-Custom-Header': 'foobar'}
});

实例方法

下面是实例的所有可用方法,方法中的config会与axios实例中的config合并。(实例可以将一些通用的config先配置好)

Config

重点来了,来看看Config。
下面列出了config的所有配置项,其中之后url是必填的。当method没有指定方法,默认为GET

{
// url is the server URL that will be used for the request
// 用来向服务器发送请求的url
url: '/user',

// method is the request method to be used when making the request // 请求方法 method: 'get', // default

// baseURL will be prepended to url unless url is absolute. // It can be convenient to set baseURL for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs // to methods of that instance. // 假如url不是绝对路径,那么向服务器发送请求的URL将是baseURL + url baseURL: 'https://some-domain.com/api/',

// transformRequest allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server // This is only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // The last function in the array must return a string, an ArrayBuffer, or a Stream transformRequest: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data

<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(133, 153, 0);">return</span> data;

}],

// transformResponse allows changes to the response data to be made before // it is passed to then/catch transformResponse: [function (data) { // Do whatever you want to transform the data

<span class="hljs-keyword" style="color: rgb(133, 153, 0);">return</span> data;

}],

// headers are custom headers to be sent headers: {'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest'},

// params are the URL parameters to be sent with the request // Must be a plain object or a URLSearchParams object params: { ID: 12345 },

// paramsSerializer is an optional function in charge of serializing params // (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/) paramsSerializer: function(params) { return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: 'brackets'}) },

// data is the data to be sent as the request body // Only applicable for request methods 'PUT', 'POST', and 'PATCH' // When no transformRequest is set, must be of one of the following types: // - string, plain object, ArrayBuffer, ArrayBufferView, URLSearchParams // - Browser only: FormData, File, Blob // - Node only: Stream data: { firstName: 'Fred' },

// timeout specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out. // If the request takes longer than timeout, the request will be aborted. timeout: 1000,

// withCredentials indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests // should be made using credentials withCredentials: false, // default

// adapter allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier. // Return a promise and supply a valid response (see response docs). adapter: function (config) { /* ... */ },

// auth indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials. // This will set an Authorization header, overwriting any existing // Authorization custom headers you have set using headers. auth: { username: 'janedoe', password: 's00pers3cret' },

// responseType indicates the type of data that the server will respond with // options are 'arraybuffer', 'blob', 'document', 'json', 'text', 'stream' responseType: 'json', // default

// xsrfCookieName is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token xsrfCookieName: 'XSRF-TOKEN', // default

// xsrfHeaderName is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value xsrfHeaderName: 'X-XSRF-TOKEN', // default

// onUploadProgress allows handling of progress events for uploads onUploadProgress: function (progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event },

// onDownloadProgress allows handling of progress events for downloads onDownloadProgress: function (progressEvent) { // Do whatever you want with the native progress event },

// maxContentLength defines the max size of the http response content allowed maxContentLength: 2000,

// validateStatus defines whether to resolve or reject the promise for a given // HTTP response status code. If validateStatus returns true (or is set to null // or undefined), the promise will be resolved; otherwise, the promise will be // rejected. validateStatus: function (status) { return status >= 200 && status < 300; // default },

// maxRedirects defines the maximum number of redirects to follow in node.js. // If set to 0, no redirects will be followed. maxRedirects: 5, // default

// httpAgent and httpsAgent define a custom agent to be used when performing http // and https requests, respectively, in node.js. This allows to configure options like // keepAlive that are not enabled by default. httpAgent: new http.Agent({ keepAlive: true }), httpsAgent: new https.Agent({ keepAlive: true }),

// 'proxy' defines the hostname and port of the proxy server // auth indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used to connect to the proxy, and supplies credentials. // This will set an Proxy-Authorization header, overwriting any existing Proxy-Authorization custom headers you have set using headers. proxy: { host: '127.0.0.1', port: 9000, auth: : { username: 'mikeymike', password: 'rapunz3l' } },

// cancelToken specifies a cancel token that can be used to cancel the request // (see Cancellation section below for details) cancelToken: new CancelToken(function (cancel) { }) }

分析Config

配置参数很多,我们一个一个来了解它们

// status is the HTTP status code from the server response status: 200,

// statusText is the HTTP status message from the server response statusText: 'OK',

// headers the headers that the server responded with headers: {},

// config is the config that was provided to axios for the request config: {} }

response是通过promise的then方法来获取,具体使用方法如下:

axios.get('/user/12345')
.then(function(response) {
console.log(response.data);
console.log(response.status);
console.log(response.statusText);
console.log(response.headers);
console.log(response.config);
});

相对的,我们有时也会出现ajax报错,此时就会到我们的catch中去捕获异常error对象。

为何放弃vue-resource

尤大的原话:

最近团队讨论了一下,Ajax 本身跟 Vue 并没有什么需要特别整合的地方,使用 fetch polyfill 或是 axios、superagent 等等都可以起到同等的效果,vue-resource 提供的价值和其维护成本相比并不划算,所以决定在不久以后取消对 vue-resource 的官方推荐。已有的用户可以继续使用,但以后不再把 vue-resource 作为官方的 ajax 方案。
知乎链接:https://www.zhihu.com/question/52418455/answer/130535375

Vue.js学习系列

作者最近正在恶补Vue的各种知识,希望能够系统的掌握Vue的开发知识。有兴趣的同学可以查看之前发布的文章:
Vue.js学习系列一 —— vue-router2学习实践笔记(附DEMO)
Vue.js学习系列二 —— vuex学习实践笔记(附DEMO)
Vue.js学习系列三——axios和网络传输相关知识的学习实践

Vue.js学习系列项目地址

https://github.com/violetjack/VueStudyDemos

关于作者

VioletJack,移动、前端工程师,两年移动端工作经验、一年前端工作经验。现专注于移动前端的学习和开发。擅长Android开发和Vue前端开发。会定期产出关于Android、Vue、移动前端相关的博文。欢迎大家关注我,我会用心维护和经营好博客,多产出高质量文章。同时也希望我所写的东西可以帮到有需要的朋友。
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